Il bosone di Higgs (Biblioteca scientifica) (Italian Edition)

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il Large Hadron Collider (Italiano)

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Describing specialised discourse in terms of features such as monoreferen- tiality, lack of emotion, precision, transparency or conciseness is accurate and 1 Where Halliday engages with equivalence, he raises a number of important issues that trans- lation scholars have debated over the years cf. Pym In other words, Halliday takes categories of description of special languages, but reveals their crucial factors in doing science, thus exposing critical issues for scientific translation.

This metaphor from medicine underlines the fact that special language features should not be con- sidered in isolation, but as a set of co-occurring characteristics leading to the creation of tightly knit packages — scientific texts. Halliday seems to list features according to their increasing contribution to causing problems of understanding to the common reader. What is also relevant here is that he takes a diachronic look at the language of science and thus shows the importance of considering the evolution of science, a point I shall return to later on. In the following example, matter is defined in its interplay of parti- cles and forces.

Typologically, the definitions of particles and forces are exten- sional Sager 3 because they are illustrated by means of the types that belong to the group the two particles categories are quarks and leptons, quarks form protons and neutrons, leptons form electrons and other particles, the four fundamental forces are electromagnetism, strong interaction, weak interaction and gravity , but they are intertwined by a distinguishing feature as a group of particles react to some forces and not to others, so they possess, or do not possess a property called colour — metalinguistically described as a property having nothing to do with ordinary colour.

Our current conception of matter comprises two main particle categories, quarks and leptons, together with three of the four known fundamental forces, electroma- gnetism and the strong and weak interactions [see box on page 48]. Gravity is, for the moment, left to the side. Leptons, the best known of which is the electron, are im- mune to the strong force. What distinguishes these two categories is a property akin to electric charge, called color.

This name is metaphorical; it has nothing to do with ordinary colors. Quarks have color, and leptons do not. Quigg a: 46 As the presence of interlocking definitions poses problems of interpreta- tion, it can cause problems for translators. However, this ST sentence is actually part of the argument on the conception of matter. What enforces the separation? I quark, che formano i protoni e i neutroni, generano e risentono degli effetti di tutte e tre le forze. I quark hanno colore, i leptoni no.

Quigg b: 56 2. How meaning is organised in a domain and what relationships exist with other concepts is essential to any discipline. In this context Halliday 73 refers to two fun- damental semantic relationships, superordination a is a kind of x and compo- sition b is part of y , which underlie much of the debate on the representation of relationships between concepts in terminology. In the example below, the taxonomy to which the top quark belongs there are six quarks, two light ones — up and down — and four heavy ones — top, bottom, strange and charm is interwoven with the taxonomy of the other category of particles, leptons, and with more general, metaphorical termino- logy used to classify particles — constituents of matter are building blocks and are organised in families, as the terms relatives and generations suggest: The top quark is the sixth, and quite possibly the last, quark.

Along with leptons — the electron and its relatives — quarks are the building blocks of matter. Along with the electrons, these make up the entire periodic table. Heavier quarks such as the charm, strange, top and bottom quarks and leptons, though abundant in the early moments after the big bang, are now commonly produced only in ac- celerators.

The Standard Model describes the interactions among these building blocks. It requires that leptons and quarks each come in pairs, often called genera- tions. The underlying criteria of classification are also quite complex, as mention of light and heavy quarks and reference to two theories, big bang and Standard Model implicitly indicate. An issue in translation would be that of deciding whether the metaphorical term building block has an equivalent in the TL — say for example mattoncino in Italian — and if so, whether it is used in the same contexts and with similar frequency.

Moreover, differences in taxonomies in different languages need to be con- sidered when translating. If we analyse the following two examples taken from Scientific American and Le Scienze: Fermilab experiments discovered the top quark in collisions of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. The top stands out because its mass is some 40 times that of its partner, the bottom quark. Bellettini 38 we find that English has a term, collision, to refer to clashes of particles. In Italian two terms are used: a loan translation from English, collisione, but also an umbrella term hypernym which describes clashes of any objects, urto, and was the original term used in Italian at a time when the influence of English on the language of science was not as significant.

In Italian translations from English, the loan collisione is by far more frequent, while in original Italian texts urto is still used quite widely. The elusive particles must have mass, which the Standard Model does not naturally explain. Petronzio 55 A further comparison shows that the same metaphorical concept exists in English too, but is expressed by a process, that is — grammatically — by a verb instead of a noun as in Italian: Collisions at energies around 1 TeV the energy associated with the force that binds together the Higgs would allow us to look within it and thus reveal its composite nature.

Quigg a: 52 Further investigation thus indicates that the taxonomy is slightly different in English and Italian, as the following Figure 1 illustrates, though with no attempt at exhaustiveness. They indicate expressions that have a grammar of their own. For example, in Italian engineering, a recurrent grammatical pattern or colligation is pilastro in calcestruzzo concrete pillar whereas in Italian gen- eral language pilastro di calcestruzzo is the standard form. For lay people, how- ever, collocates of a term provide clues as to attitudinal meaning or semantic prosody Sinclair For example, collocates such as weak and spontaneous appearing with decay indicate that the term in physics does not have the nega- tive connotations that are typical of general language.

When translating, collocations need checking: as Table 1 illustrates, con- cordances of interactions from a corpus of Scientific American and Le Scienze articles suggest that a. Cline b: 50 raggiunge lo stato di equi- librio caratterizzato da una temperatura [ Barish, Walker, evento intrinsecamente cao- re risolte: dalla massa al nu- Yamamoto a: 54 tico. Barish, Walker, Yama- mero di famiglie e al tipo di moto b: 64 interazioni fra di esse. With the development of corpus linguistics, measurement is usually the ratio of content to function words in a text or a set of them.

As lexical density increases from informal spoken language to formal written language, the relevance of this measure for translating lies in comparing densi- ties and distribution in grammatical categories in the same or similar text types across languages.

Italian original interazioni. In the following example, the ambiguity, which is a con- sequence of the impossibility of establishing whether to be reflected in signals a relationship of cause or evidence, is reproduced in the Italian translation: [ The way out of this unsatisfactory situation is to recognize that a symmetry of the laws of nature need not be reflected in the outcome of those laws.

Positing the breaking of symmetry in the following sentence does not make matters any clearer. As can be seen, the Italian translation pain- stakingly reproduces the ambiguities by rendering reflect literally, using an im- personal form non deve riflettersi and not even attempting an interpretation of outcome. As for polysemous verbs as sources of ambiguity, in the following example to be associated with could mean that energy is caused by force or that it causes force to bind the Higgs boson.

The anaphoric reference it is also at least poten- tially ambiguous as it could refer to energy, force or Higgs. Again, the ambigu- ity is reproduced in the close Italian translation: Collisions at energies around 1 TeV the energy associated with the force that binds together the Higgs would allow us to look within it and thus reveal its composite nature. The changes in grammatical classes are referred to as shifts. Halliday [] a: Several grammatical metaphors can be found in the examples quoted so far: quarks are the building blocks of matter contains an ordinary metaphor build- ing blocks, which is also a grammatical metaphor from a verb phrase quarks build up matter to the nominal group building blocks; The Standard Model describes the interactions among these building blocks includes interaction as a noun deriving from the verbal phrase how these building blocks interact with each other.

In the first example in section 2. In section 2. For an overview of shifts in translation see Bakker, Koster, van Leuwen-Zwart For the purposes of translating, bridging the gaps left by scientists in their writing requires the comparison of preferred modes of expression in the source and target languages and cultures, establishing logical relationships and draw- ing complex conclusions.

The Standard Model does not include [insertion here] the gravitational interaction. These new phenomena may be disco- vered before the LHC comes into operation. The energy of LEP [insertion here] is still being increased beyond giga-electron volts GeV per beam, and in the U. Smith b: 66 3. In the same way as children learn semantics before grammar, but as they grow up they realise that it is structure that holds the system together, translators of science are first struck by the complexities of terminology, but soon become aware of the intricacies of scientific grammar.

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A dynamic grammar of scientific translation is a flexible framework that can capture the evolution of science whilst not excluding other frameworks of analysis. What lies beyond in scientific translation is the reconstruction and co-construction of science among scientists and other discourse communities in the many different cultural and situational contexts which are typical of the communication of science nowadays. Then, in Tradurre i linguaggi settoriali, Carol contributed an article where she explained how an ability to analyse grammar in systemic- functional terms can be a highly relevant skill in translating.

She also convened a number of scholars at the University of Trieste to discuss grammar in different languages. The volume which was published as a result, Grammatica.